2004-2005

Institutions for the Efficient Allocation of Intellectual Property
Linda Cohen

Seed grant funds will support research on administrative and judicial enforcement of patents; the harmonization of patent policies between different countries; the evolution of intellectual property protection in developing countries; and the commercial exploitation of intellectual property by U.S. universities.

US/Canadian Majoritarian Electoral Systems
Bernard Grofman
Shaun Bowler

(Additional funding from Canadian research grant)
This project will compare the majoritarian electoral systems of the United States, Canada and other plurality electoral systems in a set of research conferences at UC Irvine and the University of Montreal.

Well-being, Aspirations, and Democracy in the Laboratory
Michael McBride

Professor McBride will conduct laboratory experiments in order to understand the relationship between well-being, aspirations and democracy. He will examine whether aspirations for public goods form and adapt differently than aspirations for private goods, or whether individuals gain added satisfaction from the act of participating in public good provision.

International Colloquium in France on the Politics of Veiling in France and the U.S.
Jen'nan Read

Professor Read conducted an international colloquium in France, bringing together scholars from around the world to examine the politics of veiling in France and the United States. With growing Muslim communities in both countries, the practice of veiling has become more visible and contentious. Examining perceptions and policies surrounding veiling enables us to better understand the possibilities for Muslim integration into these cultures.

2003-2004

Obstacles to Democracy
Nina Bandelj

The nations of Eastern Europe are now joining international organizations such as the European Union, WTO, and IMF. This research investigates the conditions that facilitate effective implementation of these formal institutions, and how these memberships affect policies and practices within the region.

Comparative Study of Electoral Systems
Russell Dalton

(Additional funding from the National Science Foundation)
This project examines the institutionalization of political parties, using data from the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems. We will merge data on party characteristics into the survey data file for the CSES Module II. This expanded the CSES data collection to include the United States in the 2004 election.

Cuban American Opinions
Lisa Garcia Bedolla

(Additional funds from the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute and the Center for the Study of Latinos in a Global Society)
This project will conduct surveys with Cuban-Americans in New Jersey to examine their political attitudes and party identifications. Focusing on the Union City region, this research will examine the role the area of settlement and political context play in the political socialization of Latino immigrants.

The Impact of Direct Democracy
Amihai Glazer and Shawn Bowler

(Additional funds from the Initiative and Referendum Institute at the University of Southern California)
This grant provides support for a conference on the impact of referendums/initiatives on the behavior of other actors in the political process, such as political parties, legislators, and the voters. The second day will focus on the legal implications of direct democracy. The conference was held in January 2005.

Pluralitarian and Majoritarian Electoral Systems
Bernard Grofman, Shaun Bowler and James Adams

(Additional funding from the Borchard Foundation)
This project examines single member district and runoff electoral systems on voters and party systems. The findings were presented at a research conference held at the Hotel de la Bretesche, Missilac, France.

Enhanced Democracy in New Modes of Governance
Helen Ingram

This project looks at new modes of governance involved in multi-sector partnerships. The project will bring together scholars who study multi-sector partnerships in a variety of policy areas, across different political systems. This will develop our understanding of multi-sectoral partnerships and factors affecting their performance.

Does Lustration Lead to Reconciliation?
Marek Kaminski

(Additional funds from Conflict Resolution Center at Columbia University and the Harriman Institute)
Lustration procedures are designed to verify whether persons running for public office had worked under the communist regime as informers. This project examines whether lustration or other tools may help stabilize new democracies, or whether it serves as a tool of political manipulation.

The Evolution of Government Spending
Anthony McGann

This grant provides support to develop a dataset on the evolution of government spending in the OECD countries, as well as other political and social indicators. The project will examine the effects of different institutional structures on the growth in public spending across these nations. The data will also provide a basis for a graduate seminar in this coming year.

Has America Become an Empire?
Mark Petracca

This grant provided partial support for a public lecture with Denish D'Souza on the role of the United States in world affairs.

Third World Cities in Global Perspective
David Smith

(Additional funding from the National Science Foundation)
This project would demonstrate the feasibility of developing data on the world city network that would ultimately allow researchers to test assumptions about the impact of globalization on urban life. The data would look at global networks of economic, social, demographic and information flows. This would allow the project to test claims about the erosion of state paper and challenges to democratic governance inherent in globalization processes.

How and How Much Does Regime Type Matter?
Dorothy Solinger

This project will code interviews with policy elites in China, France and Mexico. The project focuses on the role of institutional structures in shaping and mitigating the employment impact when nations join international economic associations, such as WTO, NAFTA or the EU.

The AFL-CIO Union Summer Campaign
Judy Stepan Norris

This project examines the AFL-CIO's union organizing campaign that recruits youth to work with existing union members. The project examines who were recruited to participation in this campaign. In addition, it examines the factors affecting the success or failure of these attempts to mobilize new union supporters.

Local Resistance and the State in Reformed China
Yang Su

This project examines local protest in contemporary China, and why discontent has not lead to widespread national action. Data will be collected from two local sites about resistance and protest activities, and the way the regime attempts to control such resistance.

Survey on Social Inequality and Distributive Justice in China
Wang Feng

(Additional funding from the Smith Richardson Foundation)
This grant supports a workshop on studying citizen attitudes toward inequality and distributive justice in China. As part of a collaborative research project, this workshop will develop the instrument for a national survey of the Chinese public, examining attitudes toward inequality and social justice. This will lead to funding to support the Chinese data collection.

2002-2003

Patent Enforcement by Regulation or Litigation?
Linda Cohen

(Additional funding from Resources for the Future)
This project addresses questions about government structure, regulatory policy and the regulation of intellectual property--through the experience of U.S. patent policy. This grant provides support to collect data on the enforcement of patent rights through the Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences in Washington DC. Some of the findings from this project were published as "Patented Drugs, Generic Alternatives and Intellectual Property Regimes in Developing Countries".

The Political Incorporation of Immigrants
Louis DeSipio

(Additional funding from UCI Chicano-Latino Studies program and additional support from the Tomas Riviera Policy Institute.)
The conference examines the formal and informal processes of immigrant political incorporation in the United States. The project also examines the political attitudes and behaviors of immigrants and naturalized citizens as a measure of the incorporation of immigrants into the political community.

Attitudes toward Democracy and Markets in the Pacific Rim
Russell Dalton and Hans-Dieter Klingemann

(Additional support from the East/West Center, the POSCO Program and the University of Missouri)
This conference assembles scholars from several Pacific Rim nations to compare public attitudes toward democracy and markets in the region. The analyses are based on the 2000-02 World Values Survey, and considers whether the cultural foundations for democracy exist within the developing nations of the region, and whether globalization and other economic forces are affecting attitudes toward capitalist markets in the region. See the conference program: Democracy and Markets.

Planning Conference on Direct Democracy
Amihai Glazer and Shawn Bowler

This grant provides support for a planning meeting to assemble an interdisciplinary group of scholars who are interested in the impact of referendums/initiatives on the behavior of other actors in the political process, such as political parties, legislators, and the voters. This workshop led to a larger conference on this topic.

Congressional Redistricting
Bernard Grofman

This project finalizes a book length study of congressional redistricting in the United States, including both the legal and political aspects of redistricting decisions. The project will add new data from the redistricting following the 2000 census.

Path Dependency and Democratic Responsiveness
Helen Ingram

Public policy often appears to follow an incremental, path-dependent process of development. This project examines how such policy equilibria are determined, and how they might be changed. US water policy will be used as a test case.

Why Post-Communists Punish Themselves
Marek Kaminski

The research examines why leaders of post-communist parties in Eastern Europe voluntarily prose legislation which seriously hurts their political careers, especially when they are in office and have the power to block such legislation. The project examines several hypotheses that may explain that outline, providing a test of whether such actions are linked to short term electoral concerns or are an attempt to forestall even harsher legislation by their opponents.

Games Prisoners Play
Marek Kaminski

The research provides an ethnographic description of norms and customs in Polish prisons and analyzes strategic interactions that arise among inmates. The core empirical material was collected by the author as a political prisoner during the democratization protests in Poland in the 1980s. The book from the project Games Prisoners Play: The Tragicomic Worlds of Polish Prison has been published by Princeton University Press.

Transitional Justice
Marek Kaminiski

(Additional funding from the Center for Global Peace and Conflict Studies)
Transitional justice denotes various legal processes following the demise of non-democratic regimes that attempt to deal with legal and moral issues of the prior regime. This conference focuses on the legal and political issues involved in transitional justice, the institutional alternatives for addressing these issues, and the impact of these activities for the consolidation of the new democratic regime.

The Pivotal Voter in British Politics
Anthony McGann

This project explores the feasibility of studying systematic ideological biases in the single-member district plurality electoral system used in the United Kingdom. This study examines the evolution of party strategies and is part of a broader project addressing the effects of electoral systems on party behavior.

Social Movement Sequences
David Meyer

This project examines the historical evolution of the peace movement in the United States as a test case for a larger study of social movement sequencing. The project collects multiple sources of data to map the sequence of protest campaigns and policy changes that occurred in the United States from WWII to the present.

Our Struggle for Unity: African Americans, Identity and Political Participation in the Post-1960s Era
Belinda Robnett

This project considers whether the political cohesion and solidarity of the African-American movement has declined since the civil rights period. The project also examples whether the patterns of identity formation within the African-American community have changed over time. The research project assembles both macro and micro-level data to study these changes.

United States in Comparative Perspective
Matthew Shugart

This grant will support research leading to a book length study that compares the United States to other democracies on a series of institutional, electoral, political-cultural, and policy outcome variables. The findings will both highlight the distinctive elements of American democracy, and the factors that transcend national boundaries. This is a collaborative project with Bernard Grofman and Arend Lijphart, also CSD faculty.

Unemployment and Membership in International Economic Organizations
Dorothy Solinger

(Additional support provided by the Smith Richardson Foundation)
This grant provides support to facilitate a book length study of the impact of joining an international economic organization on the political economy of a nation, specifically focusing on the impact on unemployment. The project compares the experiences of China, France and Mexico as they entered into international economic associations, and the factor that conditioned the national response to the economic transition. See the paper in the CSD series, "State Transitions and Citizenship Shifts in China"

Black Political Attitudes toward the Bush Administration
Katherine Tate

(Additional funding from the National Science Foundation)
This project examines George Bush's appeal for Black support during the 2000 election, and changes in policy attitudes within the Black community that may affect the party preferences of these voters. It will be based on analyses of a new survey of Black Americans, and comparisons with the 1996 Black Election Study.

2001-2002

The 2001 World Values Survey: Vietnam
Russell Dalton

(Additional funding from the Institute for Future Studies, Sweden)
The Institute for Human Studies in Hanoi and the CSD participated in the Vietnamese survey for 2000-01 World Values Survey, which is the largest collection of public opinion from nearly seventy nations representing more than three-quarters of the world's population. The survey studied the political values and political behavior of citizens on a global scale. The Vietnamese survey is the first national political/social survey in Vietnam. The survey has generated a series of research articles and Center research papers that are available on the Vietnam WVS website.

Judgment Day and Beyond: The 2002 Bundestagswahl
Russell Dalton and Robert Rohrschneider

(Additional funding from the German Academic Exchange Service and the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung)
This research conference assembles the leading experts on German electoral politics to examine the evolution of the German party system using the 2002 Bundestagswahl as a milestone in this process. The group met in January 2003 and a special issue of German Politics and Society (Summer 2003) published the conference findings. See the conference program: Judgment Day and Beyond.

Corporate Governance
Amihai Glazer and Kai Konrad

This research project assembles an international group of experts to examine how corporations govern themselves to see if this provides new insights into the governance of political organizations and other bodies. The papers from the conference will be published in a special issue of Economics of Governance. See the conference program: Governance Conference.

Voting Methods and Aggregating Preferences
Bernard Grofman

This project examines how different types of electoral systems affect how individual preferences are aggregated into collective choices. This is a seed grant to develop a more extensive grant proposal.

Comparative Redistricting Practices in Democracies
Bernard Grofman and Lisa Handley

(Additional funding from the National Science Foundation)
This project examines how other democracies deal with the complex problems of redistricting their legislatures to ensure equality of representation. The American experience will be compared to other Western democracies. The conference for the project was held in December 2001.

Political Representation and Party Choice in the EU
Hans-Dieter Klingemann

This research project assembles an international group of experts to examine how research on citizens in Western Europe may provide lessons for understanding citizen behavior in the EU enlargement countries. See the conference website: The New Europe.

From the Correlates of War to the Democratic Peace
Richard Matthew

Western policy makers have stressed democratic development as one method of transforming conflict zones into stable functioning political systems. This research examines such democracy-building efforts in Cambodia, Haiti, and the former Yugoslavia. The goals are to identify institutional, cultural and other obstacles to developing a democratic peace, and to clarify data needs for future research.

Demonstrations in the Vietnamese-American Community
David Meyer

This project examines a series of political protests in the Vietnamese-American community over the past decade. is interested in how racial and ethnic conflict manifests itself and is contained in democratic societies. The research asks what factors have facilitated the mobilization of protest, as well as the impact of these protests on movement supporters, authorities and the media. The research is based on a combination of media analyses and interviews with those involved in these protests. The finding are published as "Protest and Political Incorporation: Vietnamese American Protests, 1975-2001".

Our Struggle for Unity: African Americans, Identity and Political Participation in the Post-1960s Era
Belinda Robnett

This research examines whether the political cohesion and solidarity of African Americans has declined since the era of the Civil Rights movement, and whether this has affected political participation in the African American community. The project includes both a content analysis of the media during the last 35 years, as well as pilot interviews with African American community leaders.

Party Adaptation under List Proportional Representation
Matthew Shugart

(Additional funding from the National Science Foundation)
This project examines how political parties adapt to different forms of proportional representation. The project compares how different types of party list systems under proportional representation electoral systems affect the behavior of parties and candidates, and the representation of parties. The initial results are published as "Information and the Personal Vote under Proportional Representation".

Investing in Conflict Management: An Economic Approach
Stergios Skaperdas

(Additional funding from the MacArthur Foundation)
Peace does not come without negotiation, without the development of a measure of trust, and ultimately without the presence of institutions that will maintain it into the future. This project offers a formal approach to conflict management. Its aim is to understand the process of economic development as a factor affecting conflict management. See the paper, "Turning Citizens into Consumers".

Development of a Center for the Study of Collective Action
David Snow and David Meyer

This is an initiative to develop an organizational venue for conducting systematic research on non-institutionalized collective action. The program will host visiting social movement scholars to present their research at UCI, and create a central points for the network of social movement scholars at UC Irvine and internationally. In addition, the initiative will develop a model of a field research team to study collective action movements and protests as they develop.

Delegation and Accountability in Parliamentary Democracies
Kaare Strom

Through the application of the principal-agent model, this research analyses the causal chain connecting citizen preferences to policy makers. The project is based on a comparative analysis of 17 Western parliamentary democracies. The project findings are published in Strom et al. eds, Delegation and Accountability in Parliamentary Democracies.

Racial and Ethnic Minorities and Legislative Participation
Katherine Tate

This project examines the factors that affect the representation of minority groups in the U.S. and British national legislatures. Begin with elite and societal models of political change, this project examines how the structure of political opportunities affects the potential for minority representation. See the paper in the CSD series, "Political Parties, Minorities and Elected Office: Comparing Opportunities for Inclusion in the U.S. and Britain".

Race and the Political Incorporation of Racial Minorities in Comparative Perspective
Katherine Tate

This project is interested in how racial and ethnic conflict manifests itself and is contained in democratic societies. It compares the United States to the experience in other racially heterogeneous democracies, such as England. The research will be based on analyses of the 1996 Black American National Election Study and the 1997-2001 British Election Studies.

Growth within Inequality: Patterns of Income Inequality in China and the United States
Wang Feng and Philip Cohen

(Additional funding from the UC Pacific Rim Program)
This project examines income inequality in a comparative perspective, in urban China and in the United States. The project focuses on the sources of rising inequality in both nations, despite their dramatically different economic and political systems. A research workshop of project participants will be held at UC Irvine during 2002.

2000-2001

Democracy, Violence, and Cities
Teresa Caldeira

(Additional funding from the Institute for Global Cooperation and Conflict.)
This grant supported an international research conference that examined how democratization creates new bases of segregation in public spaces. This conference met the UC Irvine in June 2001. See the conference program: Democracy, Violence and Cities.

The Transformation of Democratic Institutions
Russell Dalton and Bruce Cain

(Additional funding from the Institute of European Studies and the Rockefeller Foundation)
This project assembles a team of scholars from across the University of California campuses, and several other democratic specialists to examine the tension between the institutions of representative democracy and the new calls for institutional reform. The project asks what are the sources of the current pressure for institutional reform? To what extent have institutional changes been enacted which transform the democratic process? What are the effects of enacted reforms on the workings of the democratic process? See the project website: The Transformation of Democratic Institutions The project findings were published in Cain, Dalton and Scarrow, eds. Democracy Transformed? The Expansion of Political Access in Advanced Industrial Democracies.

Formal and Informal Institutions to Cope with Risk and Credit in Developing Countries
Garance Genicot

This project assembled an international team of scholars who examined how informal and formal institutions provide bases of investment in developing nations, and thereby facilitate social, economic and political modernization in these nations. The conference was held at UC Irvine in January 2001. See the conference program: Formal and Information Institutions and Risk.

Personal Characteristics and Leadership
Amihai Glazer

This project examines how important it is for a leader to share the personal characteristics of the people he leads or serves, and whether such matching is more important for politicians than for business leaders.

Comparative Social Movements
Helen Ingram

This research examines two "offshoots" of the environmental movement: environmental justice and organic food movements. The goal is to compare how these distinct movements frame environmental issues and attempt to engage citizens in support of their cause.

Greening X: Environmental Politics and Policy
Helen Ingram and Richard Matthew

This is an annual research conference of faculty and graduate students in the Southern California region who examine how environmental policy is made, and how citizens and political groups attempt to influence government on environmental issues. See the conference program: Greening X.

Social Movements in America
David Meyer

This grant provides support to contextually four projects dealing with the impact of social movements on public policy making in America. The projects range from studies of the U.S. peace movement to citizen action against sexual violence.

Social Movements: Identity, Culture and the State
David Meyer, Belinda Robnett and Nancy Whittier

This project examines how social movements work to influence policy making, comparing a variety of social movements in America. The findings were published as: Social Movements: Identity, Culture, and the State, Oxford University Press, 2003.

Social Capital, Race, Ethnicity and Participation
Carole Uhlaner

This project examines the participation patterns of African-Americans and Latinos utilizing the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey 2000. The project focuses on the role of social capital in stimulating participation within these communities.

1999-2000

Unthinkable Democracy: The Decline of Political Parties in Western Democracies
Russell Dalton and Martin Wattenberg

(Additional funding from the Center for German and European Studies)
Schattschneider once argued that democracy without political parties is unthinkable. Yet in the last decade political parties, elections, and the institutions of representative democracy have come under increased attacks. This project brings together a group of American and comparative scholars to examine the factors that may be eroding the role of political parties and electoral politics in the United States and other democracies. The project determines whether these key institutions of representative democracy are in general decline, and considers the implications of these trends. The edited volume from the project, Parties without Partisans, was published by Oxford University Press in 2000.

Social Movements, Public Policy, and Democracy
Helen Ingram, David Meyer and Valerie Jenness

It is time to consider systematically the relationships among social movements, public policy, and democracy. The content and the process of making policy serve as both stimuli and outcomes of social movements. Understanding these relationships, that is, how policy and citizen movements affect each other, is essential to understanding the functioning of contemporary democratic politics and indeed, the democratic process more broadly. See the conference program: Social Movements, Public Policy, and Democracy

Unemployment and Membership
Dorothy Solinger

(Additional funding from the Smith Richardson Foundation.)
This research examines how economic liberalization and globalization affect the situation of workers. It compares the experience of China, France and the United States as they joined an international trade association, and whether membership stimulates unemployment and how governments respond.

Delegation and Accountability in Parliamentary Democracies
Kaare Strom

Through the application of the principal-agent model, this research analyses the causal chain connecting citizen preferences to policy makers. The project will collect data for a comparative analysis of 17 Western parliamentary democracies.

The Comparative Study of Black Political Identities and Behavior
Katherine Tate

This grant provided initial support to examine the existing public opinion data on Black political attitudes and behavior across contemporary democracies. Much of what we know about minority politics is based on the experience of African-Americans, this project examines these conclusions in the light of the attitudes and political behavior of citizens of African descent in the United States, Great Britain, Brazil and other nations.

Income Inequality in China
Wang Feng

This project compiles new data sources on the extent of income inequality in urban China. The goal is to develop a better understanding of the degree and sources of growing income inequality in China.

Registration and Participation in the 2000 Election
Martin Wattenberg

This grant provides partial support to do a public opinion survey of Southern California residents, asking about their participation in the 2000 election. These survey data will be linked to voter turnout data from official statistics, to see how attitudes are translated into political action.

1998-99

The World Values Survey, 1995-98: Romania
Russell Dalton

The Center participated in the 1995-98 World Values Survey, which is the largest collection of public opinion from more than fifty nations representing more than three-quarters of the world's population. The survey studied the political values and political behavior of citizens on a global scale. The CSD was part of the consortium that conducted surveys in the Balkan states: Romania, Bulgaria and the former republics of Yugoslavia. The findings have generated a series of research articles and Center research papers.

Democracy and Environmental Scarcity
Richard Matthew

During the 1990s several large international research projects demonstrated that environmental change may contribute to conflict within and between nations. This project focuses on small island states, which are often poor countries facing rapid environmental degradation, and how they cope with environmental stress.

Social Conflict and Economic Performance
Stergios Skaperdas

This conference assembled an interdisciplinary group of economists and political scientists to examine how the social and economic development of states is related to patterns of social conflict. The conference was held in January 1999 and the results are now being prepared for publication. See the conference program: Social Conflict and Economic Performance. Papers from the conference were published as a special issue of Economics of Governance (March 2001).

Unemployment and Regime Change in China
Dorothy Solinger

(Additional funding from the Institute for Global Cooperation and Conflict.)
This crossnational project examines the affects of unemployment on political regimes in China, France and Mexico. During 2000 the project's research team interviewed policy elites in all three nations. This information will be combined with an analysis of the political-economic relations in the three nations, to better understand the linkages between unemployment and regime change.

Resetting the Context for an Analysis of Individual Political Behavior
Judith Stepan-Norris

This research examines the political behavior of eight large ethnic groups in the Detroit area, and how religion, class and other social characteristics affect their political choices. The research is based on secondary analyses of the Detroit Metropolitan Area Transportation Study.

Foundations of Latino Partisan Identifications
Carole Uhlaner

This study makes use of the Latino National Political Survey to explore the partisanship of Mexican-Americans, Cuban-Americans, and Puerto Ricans on the mainland and, in comparison, that of non-Latino whites (Anglos). This research investigates the sources of partisanship among different nationality groups within the Latino community. See the paper by Carole Uhlaner and F. Chris Garcia, Foundations of Latino Party Identification

Voting in California's Open Primary
Martin Wattenberg

California instituted a new open primary in the 1998 election. Wattenberg used a new new collection of actual ballots from a set of California counties to examine how the open primary encouraged cross-party voting. The results from his analyses are published in Bruce Cain and Elizabeth Gerber, eds., California's Open Primary University of California Press.

1997-98

Global Environmental Organization Survey
Russell Dalton

(Additional funding from the Institute for Global Cooperation and Conflict.)
This study surveyed several hundred national environmental groups across 56 nations. The project focused on perceptions of the most important environmental issues, how groups attempt to influence national governments, the transnational activities of environmental groups. See: Transnational Environmentalism.

Party Aggregation
Bernard Grofman

This research examines how federal systems affect the structure of democratic party systems. The research is based on a cross-national analysis of democratic nations that have federal structures.

The MMP Electoral System in Comparative Perspective
Matthew Shugart and Martin Wattenberg

(Additional funding from the Center for German and European Studies.)
The MMP system is an important electoral option that combines single member districts electing representatives under a plurality rule with legislators elected via a proportional representation mechanism (usually nation-wide). Used in Germany, this system has been frequently suggested as an electoral reform in democracies using Ango-American plurality methods because it remedies disproportionalities in the translation of party vote shares into parliamentary seats, while still providing a direct electoral connection between a legislator and the constituency. This resulted in an international conference on the MMP system in Germany, Japan, New Zealand, Russia and Venezuela. The book from this conference, Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds was published by Oxford University Press, 2001.

Elite Networks in American Society
Judith Stepan-Norris

This project examines the kinship ties of individuals in elite positions in America. Data will be collected from a wide range of elites, and the connection of family ties across social sectors and time will be analyzed.

Delegation, Accountability and Parliamentary Democracy
Kaare Strom

This project examines how parliamentary democracies link citizen preferences to policy outputs, based on a comparative analysis of 17 Western Democracies. The project involves an international group of scholars, and the theoretical framework for the project was published as a special issue of European Journal of Political Research (Summer 2000).

Debts to the Past
John Torpey

This project examines the development of reparations as a response to historic injustices. It comes the U.S. experience, with other nations, such as reparations for the Holocaust, Canadian reparations to indigenous peoples, and Korean claims against Japan for WWII actions. The project produced an edited volume, Torpey (ed)., Politics and the Past, Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.

1996-97

The Greening VI
Russell Dalton and Helen Ingram

This is a Southern California Research Conference on Environmental Issues. This is the sixth in an annual series of research conferences on U.S. and international environmental issues. The conference includes graduate students and faculty from the Southern California area. See the conference program: Greening VI.

The Nordic Electoral Systems
Bernard Grofman

This conference assembled the leading scholars on the electoral systems of Scandinavia to examine the unique history and structure of these systems, and their implications for general theories about electoral systems. See the conference program: Nordic Electoral Systems The findings were published as Grofman and Lijphart, eds. The Evolution of Electoral and Party Systems in the Nordic Countries Agathon Press, 2002.

Democratizing Public Policy
Helen Ingram

The frameworks and models employed in conventional policy analysis serve poorly the purpose of examining the impacts of institutions and public policies upon citizenship and democracy. This failing is all the more serious during the current period of non-incremental institutional and public policy change. Such fundamental changes in the landscape of governance include: the diminishing power of Washington and the devolution of authority over many issues to lower levels of government; the movement of many public issues from public to private spheres; the use of market-like incentives in public policies; the emergence of community-based initiatives in policy; and the creation of new institutional forms including new kinds of property rights and regional forums. The purpose of this research is to raise critical questions about the possible side effects of the "reforms" being undertaken: What will be the impacts on already underserved constituencies? How will institutional and public policy changes affect the mobilization of and participation of groups? How will the attitudes citizens hold about their obligations to government and their conceptions of role of government in society be altered? And, from a research perspective, how should the models and methodologies political scientists and policy analysts be modified to better capture the effects on institutions and policies upon citizenship and democracy? See paper by Steven Rathgeb Smith and Helen Ingram, Institutions and Policies for Democracy

Asian Industrial Governance: States, Societies, and Cultures in Comparative-Historical Perspective
David Smith et al.

(Additional funding from the Asian Research Fund.)
This research focuses on the growing divergence in patterns of industrial governance within East Asia. The project involves a set of comparative studies of business arrangements in the leading East Asian nations. Among the particular areas of focus are the development of business associations, research and development efforts, and the growth of industrial districts. This research examines questions such as how the transition from authoritarian developmentalist states to more participatory democratic states affects economic dynamism and national competitiveness.

Workplace Democracy: A Sociometric Analysis of Detroit Autoworkers
David Smith and Judith Stepan-Norris

This project assembled historical data from the 1950s to examine the role of neighborhood effects on the political values of Detroit autoworkers. The study shows how concentrations of workers from UAW Local 600, a left-wing union local, representing workers at the Ford River Rouge plant, influenced the voting results in the 1952 elections. A spatial matrix of the census tracts in Detroit shows not only of the main effects of workplace on neighborhood, but also the effects of specific groups of workers and their political orientation on adjoining communities. This study shows how unions exert direct influences on their members, but also indirect effects on others exposed to this milieu. See the paper by Stepan-Norris and Southworth, Where the Heart Is?.

State Sovereignty and the World Economy
Dorothy Solinger, David Smith and Steven Topik

Additional funding by the Institute for Global Conflict and Cooperation, GPACS).
This international conference examined issues of the loss of state sovereignty in the face of increasing globalization in recent decades. The conference assessed whether there have been significant decreases in the degree of sovereignty states can wield in the world economy today, the extent to which particular states and regions differ in this regard, and whether sovereignty may be greater in some areas of activity than others. World areas/countries covered included Mexico, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, China, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The conference volume, States and Sovereignty in the Global Economy, was published by Routledge in 1998.

1995 and before

The STV Electoral System in Comparative Perspective
Shaun Bowler and Bernard Grofman

This 1996 conference dealt in part with the theoretical properties of the STV electoral system (single transferable vote), but had its principal focus on STV's practical consequences for democratic politics in the three countries which have made the most extensive use of the STV system: Australia, Ireland, and Malta. STV is an unusual electoral system in that it is intermediate between systems that elect single individuals per district and those that use a proportional representation mechanism. In both the US and UK the STV system has been advocated by certain groups as an electoral reform to improve the functioning of democracy. The book from this project, Elections in Australia, Ireland, and Malta Under the Single Transferable Vote: Reflections on an Embedded Institutionhas been published by University of Michigan Press, 2000.

Cities and Democracies: Challenges of Suburban Segregation
Teresa Caldeira and John Torpey

Scholars generally agree that the origins of modern democracy are to be found in the Greek polis, Republican Rome, and the northern Italian city-states of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. The very term we use to connote active political membership--citizenship--is tied to the teeming spaces in which the deliberative polis and its successors arose. If the nature and quality of public spaces and democratic politics are connected, then the 20th Century shift in the US toward the suburbs raises potentially troubling questions about the future of American democracy. The economic segregation of American society into more homogeneous enclaves has grown dramatically with the rapid spread of walled and gated suburbs. This project addresses the profound challenges that the changes in public space, urban structure, and the spatial organization of everyday life may pose for the future of American democracy: if the city is the spatial foundation for democratic political organization, what sort of polity does the (gated, walled) suburb undergird?

Critical Masses: Citizen Protest against the Environmental Consequences of Nuclear Weapons Production in the U.S. and Russia
Russell Dalton et al.

(Additional funding from the Institute for Global Conflict and Cooperation; the National Council for Soviet and East European Research; W. Alton Jones Foundation.)
In the past decade the United States and Russia have begun to deal with the hidden legacy of the Cold War. This project examined the development of citizen protest against the environmental consequences of nuclear weapons production at the Mayak facility in Russia and the Hanford Reservation in the United States. A group of American and Russian scholars examined the histories of these facilities, how citizens organized to protest their environmental impact, and how governments responded to these protests. The results have been used to advise the nascent environmental movement in Russia, and the book from the project, Critical Masses MIT Press, 1999.

The Impact of the Media on U.S. Presidential Elections
Russell Dalton et al.

(Additional funding from the National Science Foundation and the Joyce Foundation.)
Political scientists and political analysts acknowledge the growing significance of the mass media in contemporary campaigns--but they remain divided on the nature of this influence. This is the first nationally representative study of newspaper coverage of a presidential election campaign. The project surveyed a sample of Americans, and analyzed the information they received from newspapers, television, their personal contacts, and political parties. The results provide a new assessment of the media's limited impact on defining the agenda of campaigns, but their significant influence in cuing the partisan preferences of voters.

The Development of the East German Party System
Russell Dalton and Wilhelm Buerklin

(Additional funding from the Alexander von Humboldt Stiftung and the Center for German and European Studies.)
This project has examined how unification has affected German electoral politics. The incorporation of eight million new voters from East Germany presented a major challenge to the Federal Republic, creating unprecedented problems of political assimilation and the need to accommodate a new opposition. Moreover, unification generated new lines of voting support and a new post-Communist party in the East. This project tracked political events across the past two federal elections, and documents the growing political divide between Western and Eastern Germans. The project has produced two volumes, Dalton (ed.), The New Germany Votes (1993) and Dalton (ed.), Germans Divided(1996).

Cultural Congruence Theory and Political Change in Russia and Eastern Europe
Harry Eckstein

This project evaluates the likelihood of successful democratization on post-Soviet systems, on the basis of well-established hypotheses about the conditions of the viability and effectiveness of democracies. The project emphasizes Eckstein's "congruence" hypothesis, which stresses the significance for democratic governments of the democratic relations in social contexts like families, schools and workplaces. The project results were published in Can Democracy Take Root in Post-Soviet Russia? (Rowman and Littlefield, 1998).

Electoral Laws, Electoral Lists, and Campaigning in the First Non-Racial South African Election
Bernard Grofman and Arend Lijphart

(Additional funds from the National Science Foundation.)
This grant funded research on the inauguration of democratic elections in South Africa. Research resulting from the grant includes Andrew Reynolds' PhD dissertation at UCSD; Grofman and Reynolds, "Modeling the drop-off between minority population share and the size of the minority electorate in situations of differential voter eligibility across groups," Electoral Studies; and a book edited by Reynolds with contributions by many of the leading specialists on South Africa.

The Racial Impact of the 1990s Redistricting in the United States
Bernard Grofman

(Additional funding from the Ford Foundation.)
This grant funded research on the 1990s round of congressional and legislative redistricting and on the changes in federal voting rights jurisprudence. The grant produced a book edited by Bernard Grofman, Race and Redistricting Issues in the 1990s (Agathos Press, 1997); and a number of other research publications including Grofman and Handley, "1990s Issues in Voting Rights," University of Mississippi Law Review vol 654 (Winter 1995): Grofman, "The Supreme Court, the Voting Rights Act, and Minority Representation, in A. Peacock, ed. Affirmative Action and Representation (Carolina Academic Press, 1996); and a mini-symposium on voting rights in the National Policy Review

A Conference on the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in a Thirty Year Perspective
Bernard Grofman

(Additional funding from the Joyce Foundation and from the Federal Judicial Center.)
This conference was held at the Federal Judicial Center in Washington, D.C. and brought together more than a dozen leading academic researchers on civil rights issues (including scholars from the University of California, the University of Washington, Yale, and a number of other major universities), public officials who have been involved in civil rights enforcement, and nearly a dozen federal judges (many of whom had presided over some of the major civil rights legislation of the past three decades). The conference findings are published in: Bernard Grofman, Controversies in Civil Rights, University of Virginia Press, 1998.

A Cross-national Study of Democracy and Citizenship
Shawn Rosenberg and Catrina Kinnvall

Civil-military Relations and the Democratization Process
Caesar Sereseres

Decision Making in the European Court of Justice
Alec Stone

(Additional funding from the National Science Foundation.)
This project led to a series of large grants from the National Science Foundation to assemble a unique database of all of the preliminary references filed with the European Court of Justice. These data provided a unique insight into the role of the ECJ in developing the process of European Unification, and the role of courts in general in the institutionalization of a new political system. The findings have been published in Sandholtz and Stone, The Institutionalization of Europe (Oxford University Press, 2001); the dataset is available for further analysis.

Coalition Governments
Kaare Strom

This project was directed by Kaare Strom and Wolfgang Mueller. It examined the changing patterns of coalition formation in Western democracies, and the implications of these trends for the nature of democratic process. The edited volume from this project, Coalition Governments in Western Europe was published by Oxford University Press in 2000.

Electoral Choices: A Ballot-based Analysis of Voting Choices
Martin Wattenberg

(Additional funding from the Smith Richardson Foundation.)
This project collected actual computer ballots from several states. By analyzing actual ballots the project assessed the consistency of citizen voting preferences and the factors that lead to crossover and dropoff in voting patterns. A grant from the Smith Richardson Foundation support Wattenberg's study of the factors producing the decline in election turnout in America. The findings were published as Where Have All the Voters Gone?, Harvard University Press, 2002.

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